Thursday, 19 March 2020

March Is Kidney Cancer Awareness Month: Here's What You Need To Know

During the month of kidney awareness, let us all get to know the disease in detail to protect ourselves and our loved ones. Being aware of the condition will also help in identifying the symptoms at an early stage and getting timely, effective treatment.


It is a type of cancer that affects the normal functioning of the kidney when abnormal cells start growing and dividing in an unproportionate manner forming tumors. It is also known as renal cancer, and it’s the third most commonly occurring genitourinary cancer. It generally affects individuals above 40 years and is more predominant in men than women.


Renal cell carcinoma is a common type of kidney cancer that affects adults. It develops in the proximal renal tubes that help in the filtration process of the body. The other types are the transitional cell carcinoma that develops in the middle of the kidney and sarcoma that develops in the soft tissues of the organ.

Wilms tumor is a type of kidney cancer that develops in children and is treated differently from the adult type of kidney cancers.


The initial stages of kidney cancer show no signs. As the tumor grows in size, the below symptoms can be noticed:
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pain in the lower back or sides
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Anemia


The exact cause of renal cancer is not known. But factors like smoking, obesity, increasing age, High blood pressure, treatment for kidney failure, and family history increase the risk of developing the condition among individuals. 


Kidney Cancer can be diagnosed by health history, physical examination, and a series of tests. The tests include urine analysis, blood test, intravenous pyelogram(kind of X-ray), ultrasound, MRI, CT, renal arteriogram, and biopsy.


The treatment options depend on various factors like cancer stage, the spread of cancer, the kind of cancer, and the general health of the individual. Surgery is the primary treatment to remove the tumor and preserve the normal functioning of the kidney. There are two types of surgery, namely: nephrectomy that removes the entire kidney and partial nephrectomy that removes the tumor along with the partial kidney tissue.

The other noninvasive methods used to destroy the tumor are cryotherapy ( freezing tumor), radiofrequency ablation(heating tumor), arterial embolization (blocking the blood flow to the tumor). The other known methods are radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.

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Tuesday, 11 February 2020

What are the five warning signs of testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer can occur in one or both testicles. These organs, which generate male hormones and sperms, are situated within the scrotum. It is the part of the male reproductive system; the scrotum is located underneath the penis, loose pouch of skin.

 Testicular cancer

Although, it is the least concerned cancer, still in America, it is the most diagnosed type of cancer in males between the ages of 15 and 35. Therefore, it is extremely important for all males especially teenagers to middle-aged men to recognize the warning signs. Make it the point to get the checkup done or identify at home in April that is known for Testicular Cancer Awareness Month by the Testicular Cancer Society. Hence, all males need to learn to detect warning signs.

Detecting testicular cancer at an early stage will access a lot of treatment options, so it is very important to know how to detect testicular cancer for every male. Testicular cancer is considered to be highly curable, so it is very essential to know the warning signs. Here are the five most common signs to watch for:
  1. A painless lump, swelling or enlargement of one or both testes
  2. Pain or heaviness in the scrotum
  3. A dull ache or pressure in the groin, abdomen or low back
  4. A general feeling of malaise, including unexplained fatigue, fever, sweating, coughing, shortness of breath or mild chest pains
  5. Headache and confusion
Early signs of puberty can indicate testicular cancer, such as accelerated voice deepening and the growth of facial and body hair.

At SUIIT Center, it is recommended that males should regularly self-examine their testicles that can be easy to notice any changes. Most testicular cancers can be found by their partner or by themselves; few are initially detected by physicians.

 Testicular cancer

To execute self-examination, check both testicles one by one using both hands. Two fingers, index, and middle fingers need to be positioned underneath with the thumbs on the top. Then, gently roll the testicle between the thumbs to feel for any irregularities in its texture or surface.

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Monday, 6 January 2020

Eat Right To Break The Stones

If you are experiencing extreme pain in your abdomen or back, that comes and goes, again and again, you may be passing a kidney stone, solid mass made up of tiny crystals. There can be one or more stones in the kidneys. If left untreated, it can lead to severe infections and affect the functioning of your kidneys negatively.

 Kidney Stone

What Causes Kidney stones?

Anyone can get a kidney stone. And some people are more likely than others to have them. When your urine contains too much of certain substances and not enough fluid, these substances can build up and stick together in your kidneys. These are known as kidney stones. More often, men get kidney stones than women do. 

Preventive Measures

The best way to prevent kidney stones is to keep you hydrated. Make sure you drink a minimum of 3.2 liters of water every day(drinks like tea and coffee also count). 

Diet Recommendations

Certain foods can increase the chances of developing kidney stones in people who are more likely to develop them. By limiting these foods in the diet can help you to prevent the development of kidney stones.  

Following are some suggestions on what to include and what not to include in your diet to avoid the formation of kidney stones:
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Add fresh lemon juice to your water
  • Control your weight
  • Calcium and oxalate-rich foods: Consuming foods that are higher in calcium and oxalate, such as spinach, milk-based products, cereal, bread, juices, yogurt with berries, etc. 
  • Fruits and Vegetables: Adding Fruits and Vegetables in the diet can help you to prevent stone formation. However, Try to limit the consumption of high oxalate vegetables and fruits or be sure to eat them in combination with calcium-rich foods. Fruits rich in citric acid can help in preventing kidney stones.
  • Eat A Moderate Amount of Protein: High protein intake can excrete more calcium. This can increase the formation of kidney stones. Limiting animal protein and encouraging plant-based protein can prevent kidney stones.

Foods To Limit Kidney Stones:
  • Avoid fizzy drinks
  • Do not overeat salt
  • Avoid high doses of vitamin C supplements

 Kidney Stone

The deficiency of fluid, especially water, is the primary reason for the formation of kidney stones. If you had kidney stones in the past, you are more likely to get them again. The type of kidney stone may vary in each person. Calcium and oxalate are the most common types of kidney stones. If you have kidney stones, your doctor can help you to prepare an eating plan to prevent kidney stones.

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Monday, 16 December 2019

What are the early treatments for bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer mostly affects older adults. It is detectable at an early stage. It can recur, so the follow-up tests are usually recommended.

 Bladder cancer

Patient with bladder cancer experience the following symptoms or signs:
  • The most common symptom is blood clots in the urine.
  • Urge to urinate many times throughout the day
  • Urge to urinate, but unable to pass urine
  • Burning sensation while urination
  • Lower back pain on 1 side of the body
  • Frequent urination
Most often, bladder cancer is diagnosed after a person tells get blood in the urine, also known as hematuria. "Gross hematuria" means that the stage has increased hence; the blood is visible in the urine. 

General urine tests are not enough to diagnose bladder cancer because hematuria is a sign of various other conditions that is unrelated to cancer like kidney stone or infection. 

Treatment of bladder cancer relies on various factors that include the type of cancer, stage of cancer, and the grade of cancer that needs to be taken into account while treatment, with the patient's overall health and preference of treatment.
Treatments include surgery, biological therapy, and chemotherapy and below are the treatment that can be considered:
  • Chemotherapy in the bladder– This therapy performed to treat tumors however, it increases the risk of progression to a higher stage
  • Surgery– This is to remove cancerous tissue
  • Immunotherapy– This therapy triggers the immune system to fight actively with cancer cells
  • Radiation therapy– It is to destroy cancerous cells, considered to be the primary treatment when surgery isn't an option.
  • Reconstruction– This is a reconstruction of a way to pass urine after bladder removal
You can control bladder cancer with medical treatment. Organizations like SIIUT healthcare providers are transplant experts, provides the resources and support to help you cure this disease once in for all. 

However, if any of your symptoms reappear, get in touch with your doctor immediately.

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Thursday, 14 November 2019

Obtain a safe prospect

Tumors formed in the bladder can be termed as bladder cancer. Usually, bladder cancer begins in the transitional epithelial cells that make up the inner lining of the bladder. As the tumor grows it will invade the surrounding connective tissue and muscle. In severe cases, tumors would spread to the lymph nodes or pelvic organs. 
Bladder cancer

Immunotherapy is the use of medications that will help the immune system to recognize and destroy the cancer cells. Sometimes doctors would recommend immunotherapy to treat bladder cancer that is identified at the early stages. The traditional treatments for bladder cancer would include surgery and chemotherapy.

Tumors can be surgically removed and followed by a dose of chemotherapy termed as intravesical chemotherapy. Additional intravesical chemotherapy would be recommended for patients with a lower risk of disease progression whereas, patients with moderate to high-grade disease will be advised to undergo intravesical immunotherapy with a weakened, live bacterium, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).

Immunotherapy has brought out a decrease in the risk of recurrence for bladder cancer. In normal cases, the immune system detects and destroys abnormal cells and prevents the growth of many cancer cells. Usually, immune cells are found in and around tumors and these cells are called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or TILs. This is a sign that the immune system is responding to the tumor. Patients who have TILs in their tumor can do better as compared to patients who do not contain TILs.

Varied forms of immunotherapy can be given in different ways. These include intravenous that goes directly into the vein, capsules(orally), creams(topical), and directly to the bladder (intravesical). With the help of the accurate immunotherapy options, bladder cancer can be treated and prevented for a better future.

Mainly there are two types of bladder cancer such as muscle-invasive bladder cancer and non-invasive-muscle bladder cancer. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer spreads to the muscle wall of the bladder and it is aggressive hence, it becomes more difficult to treat. This is a more advanced stage of cancer and will require surgery to remove the entire bladder. Sometimes, doctors would suggest a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy to treat muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer will be found in the tissue that lines the inner surface of the bladder. It is not affected by the bladder muscles. BCG is considered as an immunotherapy treatment that is used to treat non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Other treatments would include cystoscopic resection the tumor, intravesical immunotherapy, and intravesical chemotherapy.

Each person is different and everyone would respond to the treatments differently hence, always take the suggestion from the specialist.
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Monday, 21 October 2019

Alert - blood in the urine

Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Specific issues with kidneys or any part of the urinary tract can lead to the presence of blood in the urine.

 Blood in the urine can be observed in two ways :
  • Gross hematuria - blood that can be seen with naked eyes
  • Microscopic hematuria - blood that is visible only when examined under the microscope 
Causes of hematuria 

 If there are issues with the kidneys or urinary tract, then it causes blood in the urine. There are various other reasons as well, such as:
  • Urinary tract infections - urinary infections are caused when the bacteria enter the urethra and multiply in the bladder. This could cause severe pain, burning sensation while urinating, urge to urinate often, and foul smell from urine.
  • Kidney stone - minerals in the urine might form crystals on the walls of the kidney or bladder. Sometimes these crystals will become severe and hard stones. If the stones are small, it is painless but sometimes would lead to severe pain and causes either gross or microscopic bleeding.
  • Kidney infections - when bacteria enter from bloodstream or ureters to kidneys, pyelonephritis, or kidney infections begin. Symptoms are similar to bladder infections plus might get fever and flank pain.
  • Cancer - gross hematuria could be a sign of prostate, bladder, or kidney cancer. It will be a challenge to find early signs.
  • Enlarged prostate gland - prostate gland is just below the bladder and above the urethra. It might get enlarged for men when they are in their middle age. It blocks the urine flow by compressing the urethra. It will be difficult to urinate and can cause either gross or microscopic hematuria.
  • Injuries - any injury caused on the kidney due to accidents or sports activity can also cause urine in blood.
  • Heavy exercises - it is a rare scenario when the body is dehydrated, under trauma, or the breakdown of red blood cells can cause urine in the blood, which is visible.
  • Medications - certain medicines will have side effects that would lead to other issues, especially medications used to treat cancer.
Medical care

Sometimes medications can treat urinary tract infections and prescribed antibiotics for the enlarged prostate gland. Shock wave therapy will be used to treat kidney or bladder stones, but in some instances, no treatment is needed.

Treatment will be recommended based on the cause of bleeding. The reason could be anything, but if blood clots block the urine flow, then doctors would insert a tube to the bladder and will try to clear out the blood clots.

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Tuesday, 1 October 2019

What You Need To Know About Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections are the most common type of infections that affect the lower urinary system (Urethra and Bladder). Upper urinary tract infections are less frequent and more severe that involves kidney and ureters. Women are more predominantly prone to urinary infection in comparison with men, at least 1 in 3 women will have an episode of UTI during their lifetime.


The primary cause of the urinary tract infection is the bacteria name Escherichia Coli that is present in the digestive system. The bacteria escape from the anus to the urethra when we use the washroom due to their proximity to the location. If left untreated they have a chance of traveling even to the kidney. There are three types of urinary infections based on the place they affect- Bladder infection, Urethra infection and Kidney infection.

The factors which can alleviate an individual's conditions of contracting infection might include Age, pregnancy, weak immune system, diabetes, poor personal hygiene, menopause, and sexual intercourse.



Urinary tract infections don't always cause signs and symptoms, but when they do, they may include
  • A Burning feeling during urination
  • A frequent or intense urge to urinate
  • Urine that appears cloudy with a strong, pungent smell
  • Pain or pressure in your back or lower abdomen
  • Fever or chill (a sign the infection may have reached your Kidneys)
  • Blood in the urine 


Based on the symptoms, the doctor would recommend a urine test to detect the presence of bacteria or white blood cells in the urine. He may also suggest a urine culture test to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi that help to identify the cause of infection and to choose the right treatment.



There are two types of treatments available based on whether the infection is simple or complicated.

Simple UTI:
These are the infections that can be treated with a short course of antibiotics as they are uncomplicated and mild.

Complicated UTI:
These require a more extended dose of antibiotics. Sometimes the antibiotic therapy may be started intravenously in the hospital. Kidney infections are an example of complicated urinary infection.



To prevent the reoccurrence of urinary tract infections, individuals should drink more fluids, especially water. They should not hold urine for an extended period, urinate after sex, and keep their genitals clean.

For early diagnosis and effective treatment for urological problems contact South India Institute for Urology and Transplant (SIIUT). One of the leading and trusted urology hospital in Chennai.

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